Removal of ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides in wastewater and agricultural runoff by zinc oxide nanoparticles before analysis by HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy

Volume 6, Issue 04, Pages 93-106, Dec 2023 *** Field: Analytical Environmental Chemistry

  • Mahadi Danjuma Sani, (corresponding ) Department of Environmental Science, GITAM School of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam, A.P. India
  • Nagendra Kumar V. D. Abbaraju Department of Environmental Science, GITAM School of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam, A.P. India
  • Venugopal V. S. Nutulapati Department of Chemistry, GITAM School of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam, A.P. India
  • Nura Kura Umar Department of Environmental Science, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria
Keywords: Removal, Photocatalytic degradation, Zinc Oxide, Ethylene bisdithiocarbamate, High-performance liquid chromatography, UV-Vis spectroscopy


This study developed an applied method based on the degradation to remove ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides from wastewater and agricultural runoff by zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs). The synthesized ZnONPs were characterized using XRD for material crystallinity, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particle size analysis (PSA) for surface structure, morphology and particle size (nm), respectively. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy  (EDX) spectra confirmed the presence of zinc and showed that the synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were pure. Determination of the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of Mancozeb (MCZ) fungicides based on ZnONPs was performed. Different amounts of ZnONPs were loaded into an MCZ fungicide solution in different concentrations. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to determine the dithiocarbamate residue and the degradation efficiency of the synthesized particles. The particle size distribution of the synthesized ZnONPs was found to be in the range of 50-95 nm. At optimum conditions, with a ZnONPs dosage of 10 mg, (MCZ) fungicide concentration of 9.37 mg L-1, and a duration of 60 minutes, the degradation efficiency was surpassed at more than 95%. Additionally, the nanoparticles demonstrated excellent reusability and maintained efficient activity for up to three cycles. 

Author Biographies

Nagendra Kumar V. D. Abbaraju, Department of Environmental Science, GITAM School of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam, A.P. India

Associate Professor in the Department of Environmental Science, GITAM University.

Venugopal V. S. Nutulapati, Department of Chemistry, GITAM School of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam, A.P. India

Professor, Department of Chemistry, GITAM University

Nura Kura Umar, Department of Environmental Science, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Associate Professor and Head of Department, Environmental Sciences, Federal University Dutse.


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How to Cite
Danjuma Sani, M., Abbaraju, N., Nutulapati, V. V. S., & Umar, N. (2023). Removal of ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides in wastewater and agricultural runoff by zinc oxide nanoparticles before analysis by HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Analytical Methods in Environmental Chemistry Journal, 6(04), 93-106.
Original Article